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Many people ask me about their failure in making bread or cake! Why our cake is not fluffy enough or why my bread is not soft, why the yeast doesn’t work while I bought it recently and many other questions.

The only thing you need is a little bit knowledge about the flour and differences between them and which type is good for your baking project and some other mini tips. THAT IS IT!!!! You’ll see that you’ll be perfect. If I’m talking about knowledge, I don’t mean that you need to know whole technology lying behind flour and wheat. NO NEVER!! It is only for understanding that the problem is not YOU, you’re amazing and you do a great job, but the problem is not choosing right product may be or not being aware of some small cooking or baking mistakes. So, because of that, you are here. Read the article and if you still have any questions, leave me a message.



Below, I’ll explain to you shortly about different types of wheat and then we’ll go through the flour.


The content of protein is the most important element which determines what the wheat is used for. The greater the protein, the greater the elasticity of the dough will be. When we say this flour is hard, it’s because of this elasticity though and this elasticity makes some flours good for making bread and not good for making cakes.

Classification of wheat is according to its growing season, hardness and softness, color and shape of kernel. 


So, we have the classification as below:

  • Hard red winter, soft red winter, and hard red spring
  • Soft white and hard white
  • Durum




According to this classification, you realize that they have different content of protein and then they are been using for different production!

The hard, red winter and spring wheat have more content of protein so the flour that releases from them will have more protein and more hardness. We can use this flour for baking the bread mostly!

Hard and soft white contain less protein, so its flour is being used for cakes, cookies, pastries, etc ….



So different kinds of wheat, different protein content and different flour types…..

All-purpose flour:

It has a medium amount of protein which can be used for a variety of baking from crusty bread to fine cakes and pastries, but most professional bakers don’t use all-purpose flour, they use bread flour or cake flour or pastry flour according to what they want to bake. One cup of this flour is about 125 grams.

Bread flour:

With high protein is good for making crusty bread and rolls, pizza dough and similar products.


Cake flour:

In compare to bread flour, it is much whiter, and the grains are finer. So, its fine and soft texture make it preferable for tender cakes and pastries.

One cup of bread flour is about 140 gr but a cup of cake flour weighs about 99 grams.

Pastry flour:

It is a little bit stronger than cake flour which makes it suitable for making pastry or pie doughs, cookies, yeast doughs, and muffins. One cup of this flour is about 100-101 grams.

Self-rising flour:

It is an all-purpose flour which has added baking powder and salt. The problem of this flour is, you never know how much baking powder is added and how much it is effective. So, personally, I never use this flour.



Whole wheat flour:

It comes in two different kinds. One is 100 percent whole wheat which is made from red wheat grain and contains more fiber and nutrients than the all-purpose flour, and the other one is white whole wheat flour which is made from white spring wheat and it has a milder taste and brighter color than the 100 percent whole wheat. This flour makes heavier bread and baking products than the regular all-purpose flour and has a shorter shelf life.

One cup of this flour weighs about 113 grams.



In Canada we don’t have cake flour, so you can follow the instruction below for making cake flour from all-purpose flour:

Use one cup minus two tablespoons of all-purpose flour sifted with 2 tablespoons of corn starch for each cup of cake flour called in recipe.

Explanation: measure one cup of all-purpose flour and then take 2 tablespoons of it (one cup minus 2 tablespoons), then replace that 2 tablespoons with 2 tablespoons of corn starch (now you have one cup flour) then sift it and use it. (do the same thing for each measure of cake flour in your recipe). In this case, you can make a softer and fluffy cake.

Have fun in the kitchen!!!!


Post Author: Negar Dianat